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Can gamma knife cause memory loss?

Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a well-established treatment for various brain conditions, including brain metastases, glomus tumors, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (Samanci, 2024; Kalhoro & Hashim, 2022; Spina et al., 2018). While Gamma Knife radiosurgery is generally considered safe and effective, concerns have been raised about potential side effects such as radiation necrosis, brain edema, and memory deterioration (Weng et al., 2021; Scobioala et al., 2019). Studies have indicated that Gamma Knife radiosurgery can lead to complications like hydrocephalus and normal pressure hydrocephalus, particularly in the post-treatment period (Marshalik et al., 2022; Park et al., 2020). Additionally, the use of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in patients with a history of previous treatments like microsurgical surgery may complicate postoperative recovery (Huang et al., 2021).

Although Gamma Knife radiosurgery is known for its precision and efficacy, there are reports of adverse effects associated with the treatment of large-sized tumors, which may raise concerns about potential memory loss (Park et al., 2019). Furthermore, the implementation of Gamma Knife radiosurgery requires careful planning and consideration of factors such as dose distribution inhomogeneity to ensure optimal outcomes and minimize risks (Dagli et al., 2022). While Gamma Knife radiosurgery has shown promising results in treating various conditions, including refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and hypothalamic hamartomas, it is essential to weigh the benefits against the potential risks of memory-related side effects (Zaed et al., 2019; Kumar et al., 2019).

In conclusion, while Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a valuable tool in neurosurgical interventions, the possibility of memory loss as a side effect should be considered, especially in cases involving large tumors or in patients with preexisting conditions that may impact postoperative recovery.

References:

  1. Dagli, O., Tanir, A., & Kurt, G. (2022). Analysis of radiation dose distribution inhomogenity effects in gamma knife radiosurgery using geant4. Politeknik Dergisi, 25(1), 59-64. https://doi.org/10.2339/politeknik.674718
  2. Huang, B., Ren, Y., Liu, X., Lan, Z., Hui, X., Jiang, Y., … & Zhang, Y. (2021). Effectiveness and safety evaluation of microresection of vestibular schwannoma after gamma knife treatment.. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-959566/v1
  3. Kalhoro, A. and Hashim, A. (2022). Glomus jugulare tumors treatment by gamma knife radiosurgery: a single center study. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 39(1). https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.39.1.6590
  4. Kumar, R., Yadav, J., Sahu, J., Tripathi, M., Ahuja, C., & Dayal, D. (2019). Episodes of prolonged “trance-like state” in an infant with hypothalamic hamartoma. Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 24(1), 55-59. https://doi.org/10.6065/apem.2019.24.1.55
  5. Marshalik, M., DiManna, K., & Wagner, J. (2022). Hydrocephalus after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: favorable outcomes after shunt placement. Cureus. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25415
  6. Park, H., Park, K., Lee, J., Jeong, S., Kim, J., Chung, H., … & Paek, S. (2019). Frameless fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery with icon™ for large metastatic brain tumors. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 34(8). https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e57
  7. Park, Y., Yoo, B., Jeong, S., Lee, W., Kim, M., Huh, S., … & Lee, J. (2020). Normal pressure hydrocephalus after gamma knife radiosurgery in a patient with vestibular schwannoma. Journal of Neurocritical Care, 13(2), 127-131. https://doi.org/10.18700/jnc.200014
  8. Samanci, Y. (2024). Long‐term outcomes of gamma knife radiosurgery in treating glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Headache the Journal of Head and Face Pain, 64(3), 323-328. https://doi.org/10.1111/head.14687
  9. Scobioala, S., Brentrup, A., Elsayad, K., & Eich, H. (2019). Radiosurgery techniques in the treatment of epilepsy related to hypothalamic hamartomas (systematic review). Sn Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, 1(5), 342-348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399-019-00054-9
  10. Spina, A., Boari, N., Gagliardi, F., Bailo, M., Vecchio, A., Bolognesi, A., … & Mortini, P. (2018). Gamma knife radiosurgery for glomus tumors: long‐term results in a series of 30 patients. Head & Neck, 40(12), 2677-2684. https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.25517
  11. Weng, Y., Shen, J., Zhang, L., Fang, Z., Xiao, F., Zhang, C., … & Xu, Q. (2021). Low-dosage bevacizumab treatment: effect on radiation necrosis after gamma knife radiosurgery for brain metastases. Frontiers in Surgery, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.720506
  12. Zaed, I., Roumy, L., Lozito, A., & Ureiche, V. (2019). Gamma knife surgery (gks) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (ocd) refractory to pharmacological therapy: state of the art and review of the literature. Sn Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, 1(11), 944-951. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399-019-00141-x